By Frances W. Zweifel
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Extra info for A Handbook of Biological Illustration
Martin's Bleed Proof White, or Pro White Fine scalpel or X-Acto knive (blade no. 11 or 16) FIG. 8 Rolled-paper smudger (tortillon) Pencil Drawings L,ead pencils ranging from hard to soft (4I1 to 4B), wooden or rncchanical Kncadcd eraser Grounds: cold-press (toothed, rough-surface) papers, bristol board, illustratioll board; hot-press (smooth surface) papers; drafting vellum such as Rienfang's Satin Dcsign, Albanene, or Denril; mattesurface acetate o r polyester filrn Rolled-paper smudgers (tortillons) Erasers: kneaded, white vinyl Fixative spra)- Wash Drawings Round and flat watercolor brushes Permanent black watercolor in a tube, such as Winsor & Newton White china saucer or palette Containers for water Absorbent tissues or towels Ground: illustration board Drawing pen and ink Kneaded eraser Maps and Graphs Carbon-Dust Drawings Carbon (charcoal) pencils, such as Wolff's, Conte, or General's, in soft, medium, and hard (B, HB, H) Round watercolor brushes, large and small Flat watercolor brushes, various sizes Small covered dish FIG.
A compound rnicroscope is used to see and draw objects not discernible with the naked eye. Use a scanning lens to locate the portion of the slide to be illustrated, then use lenses of greater magnification to see the desired part in greater detail. Filters of different colors will let you see certain particulars more clearly by bringing out one stain while subduing others. An ocular micrometer or, preferably, a grid-ruled reticle that fits into the ocular of either a binocular or a compound microscope will enable you to draw accurately by using the grid-coordinate method as described on page 33.
Materials T h e illustrator should be properly equipped before beginning to draw. Basic and special materials are listed below, under the techniques in which they are used. Note that several items appear under more than one heading. Some items are optional; their purchase depends on individual need and preference. It would be to your great advantage to visit a large art-supply store before making any special purchase. New products come on the market almost daily; alas, tried-and-true old favorites disappear just as quickly.
A Handbook of Biological Illustration by Frances W. Zweifel