By Sandra Dawson (auth.)
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Extra resources for Analysing Organisations
However, just as it is better for protagonists of change to secure the support of groups rather than individuals, it is, on the other hand, worse to meet the resistance of groups rather than that of individuals. A persuasive approach is often combined with a form of participation or consultation, which Lewin (1948) argued facilitated the three phases necessary in attitude change. First there is 'unfreezing', which requires a recognition of the need to change and a removal of rewards for current behaviour.
A cynic might say that this model is fine except that change in organisations is rarely so programmatic. Indeed, what is often required at managerial level is the generation of behaviour that is adaptive to changing circumstances. It is a different matter for repetitive jobs closely geared to technology, and this model is probably more appropriate for adaptations at this level. Coch and French (1948) used participatory persuasive techniques successfully to facilitate changes in methods of work and payment in a sewing machine factory.
This approach puts the emphasis on managers establishing schemes to motivate the behaviours they want and to discourage those they do not want. It also provides an explanation of the cynical distrust and suspicions which sometimes greet managerial schemes for incentive payments. If employees doubt the sincerity of managerial pledges to fulfil their side of the employment contract and to give them promised rewards, then it is rational for them to control and restrict their performance. A serious problem can arise when some aspects of performance which are very important cannot be clearly identified and measured.
Analysing Organisations by Sandra Dawson (auth.)